All as a determiner
All means ‘every one’, ‘the complete number or amount’ or ‘the whole’. We use it most often as a determiner. We can use a countable noun or an uncountable noun after it:
All my friends are away at university.
All tickets cost 25 pounds.
All information about the new product is confidential.
As a determiner, all comes before articles, possessives, demonstratives and numbers.
All with no article
When all refers to a whole class of people or things, we don’t use the:
All children love stories. (i.e. every child in the world)
All the children love stories.
We don’t use the with time expressions such as all day, all night, week, all year, all summer:
I spent all day looking for my car keys.
The party went on all night and some of the neighbours complained.
We use all of before personal pronouns (us, them), demonstrative pronouns (this, that, these, those) and relative pronouns (whom, which). The personal pronoun is in the object form:
I need to speak to all of you for a few minutes.
He brought gifts for all of us.
We had to contact the insurance firm and the airline, all of which took a lot of time. (all of which = ‘contacting the insurance firm and the airline’)
With demonstratives (this, that, these, those) we can say all of or all without of:
[talking about a pile of kitchen waste]
All (of) this has to go out into the rubbish bin.
We often use of after all in definite noun phrases (i.e. before the, possessives and demonstratives), but it is not obligatory:
All (of) the workers were given a pay-rise at the end of the year.
I gave all (of) my old books to my sister when she went to university.
What shall we do with all (of) this cardboard? Throw it out?
All without of
We use all, not all of, before indefinite plural nouns referring to a whole class of people or things:
All cats love milk.
All of cats love milk.
This book was written for all children, everywhere.
We use all, not all of, before uncountable nouns:
All junk food is bad for you.
All of junk food is bad for you.
I love all music, not just classical.
We don’t normally say all people; we say everybody or everyone:
Everyone wants to achieve their personal goals in life.
All people want to achieve…
All with personal pronouns
When all refers to a personal pronoun which is the object in a clause, we can use pronoun + all or all of + pronoun. The pronoun is in the object form:
I used to have three pens but I’ve lost them all. (or … but I’ve lost all of them).
but I lost all them.
However, in short responses, all of must be used:
How many of these boxes are you going to need?B:
All of them.
We use all of with the object form of the pronoun, even when the pronoun is the subject in the clause:
All of us are hoping for good news.
A long line of people waited to speak to the officer. All of them had a story to tell.
All as a pronoun
We can use all alone as a pronoun in formal situations:
All were happy with the outcome. (less formal: Everyone was happy with the outcome.)
All will be revealed to the public in 25 years’ time, when the cabinet papers are released. (less formal: Everything will be revealed to the public …)
Usually, all as a pronoun is premodified or postmodified:
More than 100 people came to the refugee centre. Almost all had lost family members or property or both.
All that we had been told turned out to be untrue.
All as an adverb
When all refers to the subject of a clause, it usually comes in the normal mid position for adverbs (between the subject and the main verb, or after the modal verb or first auxiliary verb, or after be as a main verb):
The kids all go to school on the same bus.
These items could all have been bought cheaper on the Internet.
The students are all here now. We can start.
All meaning ‘completely’ or ‘extremely’
We can also use all as an adverb meaning ‘completely’ or ‘extremely’, especially in informal styles:
He lived all alone in an old cottage in the woods.
He came back all covered in mud.
I lost a good friend, and all because of my stupidity.
Maggie got all upset when she found out the house had been sold. (informal)
All: not all
All: after all
We use after all in two main ways. We use it to mean ‘in spite of what happened before’. With this meaning it usually occurs in end position:
[spoken by someone who was previously not hungry]
I think I might have something to eat now after all.
She thought she would fail her driving test but she passed after all.
After all can also mean ‘it should be remembered that’:
Why don’t you invite Nadia? After all, you do work with her every day.
After all does not mean ‘finally’ or ‘at last’:
We spoke about it and finally decided to sign the contract.
and after all decided to sign the contract.
(“All” aus English Grammar Today © Cambridge University Press.)
- Adjectives and adverbs
Easily confused words
- Above or over?
- Across, over or through?
- Advice or advise?
- Affect or effect?
- All or every?
- All or whole?
- Allow, permit or let?
- Almost or nearly?
- Alone, lonely, or lonesome?
- Along or alongside?
- Already, still or yet?
- Also, as well or too?
- Alternate(ly), alternative(ly)
- Although or though?
- Altogether or all together?
- Amount of, number of or quantity of?
- Any more or anymore?
- Anyone, anybody or anything?
- Apart from or except for?
- Arise or rise?
- Around or round?
- Arouse or rouse?
- As or like?
- As, because or since?
- As, when or while?
- Been or gone?
- Begin or start?
- Beside or besides?
- Between or among?
- Born or borne?
- Bring, take and fetch
- Can, could or may?
- Classic or classical?
- Come or go?
- Consider or regard?
- Consist, comprise or compose?
- Content or contents?
- Different from, different to or different than?
- Do or make?
- Down, downwards or downward?
- During or for?
- Each or every?
- East or eastern; north or northern?
- Economic or economical?
- Efficient or effective?
- Elder, eldest or older, oldest?
- End or finish?
- Especially or specially?
- Every one or everyone?
- Except or except for?
- Expect, hope or wait?
- Experience or experiment?
- Fall or fall down?
- Far or a long way?
- Farther, farthest or further, furthest?
- Fast, quick or quickly?
- Fell or felt?
- Female or feminine; male or masculine?
- Finally, at last, lastly or in the end?
- First, firstly or at first?
- Fit or suit?
- Following or the following?
- For or since?
- Forget or leave?
- Full or filled?
- Fun or funny?
- Get or go?
- Grateful or thankful?
- Hear or listen (to)?
- High or tall?
- Historic or historical?
- House or home?
- How is …? or What is … like?
- If or when?
- If or whether?
- Ill or sick?
- Imply or infer?
- In the way or on the way?
- It’s or its?
- Late or lately?
- Lay or lie?
- Lend or borrow?
- Less or fewer?
- Look at, see or watch?
- Low or short?
- Man, mankind or people?
- Maybe or may be?
- Maybe or perhaps?
- Nearest or next?
- Never or not … ever?
- Nice or sympathetic?
- No doubt or without doubt?
- No or not?
- Nowadays, these days or today?
- Open or opened?
- Opportunity or possibility?
- Opposite or in front of?
- Other, others, the other or another?
- Out or out of?
- Permit or permission?
- Person, persons or people?
- Pick or pick up?
- Play or game?
- Politics, political, politician or policy?
- Price or prize?
- Principal or principle?
- Quiet or quite?
- Raise or rise?
- Remember or remind?
- Right or rightly?
- Rob or steal?
- Say or tell?
- So that or in order that?
- Sometimes or sometime?
- Sound or noise?
- Speak or talk?
- Such or so?
- There, their or they’re?
- Towards or toward?
- Wait or wait for?
- Wake, wake up or awaken?
- Worth or worthwhile?
Nouns, pronouns and determiners
- about nouns
- common nouns
- noun phrases
- question words
- uncountable nouns
Prepositions and particles
- Among and amongst
- At, in and to (movement)
- At, on and in (place)
- At, on and in (time)
- Beneath: meaning and use
- By + myself etc.
- For + -ing
- In front of
- In spite of and despite
- In, into
- Near and near to
- On, onto
- Prepositional phrases
- Words, sentences and clauses
- Using English
Das Wort des Tages
someone who stands on the street and asks people who are walking past to give money regularly to a charity