Übersetzung von “by” — Englisch–Russisch Wörterbuch

by

preposition uk strong /baɪ/ us weak /, / us
DO

A2 used to show the person or thing that does something

указывает на деятеля, передается твор. падежом, реже род. падежом
She was examined by a doctor.
a painting by Van Gogh
HOW

A2 through doing or using something

указывет на средство, передается твор. падежом
Can I pay by cheque?
We'll get there by car.
[ + doing sth ] Open the file by clicking on the icon.
HOLDING

B2 holding a particular part of someone or something

за
She grabbed me by the arm.
NEAR

B1 near or next to something or someone

рядом, у, около
I'll meet you by the post office.
A small child stood by her side.
NOT LATER

A2 not later than a particular time or date

к
Applications have to be in by the 31st.
ACCORDING TO

according to

по
By law you must be eighteen to purchase alcohol.
PAST

past

мимо
He sped by me on a motorcycle.
AMOUNT

used to show measurements or amounts

на, за
twelve by ten metres of floor space
Interest rates have been increased by 0.25%.
I'm paid by the hour.
by accident/chance/mistake, etc

B1 as a result of an accident/chance/mistake, etc

по случайности/ошибке и т. д.
I went to the wrong room by mistake.
by day/night

during the day/night

днем/ночью
day by day/little by little/one by one, etc

used in particular phrases to mean 'gradually' or 'in units of'

день ото дня/ понемногу/по одному
Day by day he grew stronger.

(Übersetzung von “by preposition” aus dem Cambridge Englisch–Russisch Wörterbuch © Cambridge University Press)