Bedeutung von “by” — Learner’s Dictionary

by

preposition us uk strong /baɪ/ weak /, /
They were woken up by someone banging on the door.This sweater has to be washed by hand.He was physically abused by his alcoholic father.The plane was hijacked by terrorists.The tent was held up by ropes.
DO

A2 used to show the person or thing that does something:

She was examined by a doctor.
The building had been destroyed by fire.
a painting by Van Gogh
HOW

A2 through doing or using something:

Can I pay by cheque?
I sent it by email.
We'll get there by car.
[ + doing sth ] Open the file by clicking on the icon.
HOLDING

B2 holding a particular part of someone or something:

She grabbed me by the arm.
NEAR

B1 near or next to something or someone:

I'll meet you by the post office.
A small child stood by her side.
NOT LATER

A2 not later than a particular time or date:

Applications have to be in by the 31st.
ACCORDING TO

according to:

By law you must be eighteen to purchase alcohol.
PAST

past:

He sped by me on a motorcycle.
AMOUNT

used to show measurements or amounts:

twelve by ten metres of floor space
Interest rates have been increased by 0.25%.
I'm paid by the hour.
Copies have sold by the million.
by accident/chance/mistake, etc

B1 as a result of an accident/chance/mistake, etc:

I went to the wrong room by mistake.
by day/night

during the day/night

day by day/little by little/one by one, etc

used in particular phrases to mean 'gradually' or 'in units of':

Day by day he grew stronger.

(Definition von “by preposition” aus dem Cambridge Learner's Dictionary © Cambridge University Press)