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English definition of “adverb”


noun [C]     /ˈæd.vɜːb/ US  /-vɝːb/
A2 a word that describes or gives more information about a verb, adjective, adverb, or phrase: In the phrase "she smiled cheerfully", the word "cheerfully" is an adverb. In the phrase "the house was spotlessly clean", the word "spotlessly" is an adverb.Parts of speech Grammar:AdverbsSee moreGrammar:Adverbs: usesAdverbs are one of the four major word classes, along with nouns, verbs and adjectives. We use adverbs to add more information about a verb, an adjective, another adverb, a clause or a whole sentence and, less commonly, about a noun phrase.See moreGrammar:Adverbs: meanings and functionsAdverbs have many different meanings and functions. They are especially important for indicating the time, manner, place, degree and frequency of something.See moreGrammar:Adverbs: formsSee moreGrammar:Adverbs ending in -lyAdverbs have a strong connection with adjectives. Adjectives and adverbs are usually based on the same word. Adverbs often have the form of an adjective + -ly.See moreGrammar:Adverbs ending in -ward(s) or -wiseThere is a small group of adverbs which end in -ward(s) or -wise. The -ward(s) words can end in either -ward or -wards (inward, inwards).See moreGrammar:Adverbs with the same form as adjectivesSome adverbs have the same form as adjectives. The most common are: fast (not fastly), left, hard, outside, right, straight, late, well, and time words such as daily, weekly, monthly, yearly.See moreGrammar:Adjectives ending in -lySome adjectives end in -ly, e.g. lively, lonely, ugly. We don’t form adverbs from these adjectives because they are not easy to pronounce. We usually reword what we want to say instead.See moreGrammar:Adverbs not related to adjectivesSome adverbs (e.g. just, quite, so, soon, too, very) are not directly related to adjectives:See moreGrammar:Gradable adverbsMost adverbs, like most adjectives, are gradable (they can express different degrees of qualities, properties, states, conditions and relations). We can modify adverbs using other types of adverbs and comparative forms to make longer adverb phrases.See moreGrammar:Adverbs: functionsAdverbs can modify verbs, adjectives, nouns, other adverbs and whole phrases or sentences:See moreGrammar:Adverbs: typesSee moreGrammar:Time, place and manner adverbs (early, there, slowly)See moreGrammar:Degree adverbs (slightly) and focusing adverbs (generally)Degree and focusing adverbs are the most common types of modifiers of adjectives and other adverbs. Degree adverbs express degrees of qualities, properties, states, conditions and relations. Focusing adverbs point to something.See moreGrammar:Evaluative adverbs (surprisingly) and viewpoint adverbs (personally)We put some adverbs outside the clause. They modify the whole sentence or utterance. Evaluative and viewpoint adverbs are good examples of this:See moreGrammar:Linking adverbs (then, however)Linking adverbs show a relationship between two clauses or sentences (e.g. a sequence in time, cause and effect, contrast between two things):See moreGrammar:Adverbs as discourse markers (anyway, finally)Discourse markers organise longer pieces of conversation or text. They can mark the openings or closings of conversations, changes in topics, and other functions connected with organising a conversation or text. Most discourse markers belong to the class of adverbs.See moreGrammar:Adverbs as short responses (definitely, certainly)See moreGrammar:Adverb phrasesSee moreGrammar:Adverb phrases: formsAn adverb phrase consists of one or more words. The adverb is the head of the phrase and can appear alone or it can be modified by other words. Adverbs are one of the four major word classes, along with nouns, verbs and adjectives.See moreGrammar:Adverb phrases: types and meaningsAn adverb phrase can consist of one adverb or an adverb plus other words before it (premodification) or after it (postmodification). Adverb phrases have many different meanings.See moreGrammar:Adverb phrases: functionsSee moreGrammar:Adverbs and adverb phrases: positionWe can put adverbs and adverb phrases at the front, in the middle or at the end of a clause.See moreGrammar:Types of adverbs and their positionsDifferent types of adverbs go in different places.See moreGrammar:Manner, place and timeAdverbs of manner, place and time usually come in end position:See moreGrammar:Evaluative and viewpointAdverbs indicating the attitude and point of view of the speaker or writer usually go at the beginning. These adverbs are called sentence adverbs because they refer to the whole sentence or utterance:See moreGrammar:Position with here and thereSee moreGrammar:Adverbs and adverb phrases: typical errors[end of a formal letter/email]See moreGrammar:Adverbs: comparative and superlative formsAdverbs do not normally change in form, but a few have comparative and superlative forms. These are usually short adverbs and so they normally have comparative and superlative forms with -er and -est.See moreGrammar:Adverbs with more and mostAdverbs with two or more syllables form the comparative and superlative with more and most:See moreGrammar:Well and badlyThe adverb well has the same comparative and superlative forms as the adjective good (better, best). The adverb badly has the comparative and superlative forms worse, worst:See moreGrammar:Comparative adverbs: using thanWhen we mention the second person or thing in the comparison, we use than. We do not use that or as. If the second person mentioned takes the form of a personal pronoun, we normally use the object form of the pronoun (me, you, him, her, us, them):See more adverbial     /ədˈvɜː.bi.əl/ US  /-ˈvɝː-/ adjective an adverbial phraseParts of speech
(Definition of adverb noun from the Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary & Thesaurus © Cambridge University Press)
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