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English definition of “it”

it

pronoun (THING)    /ɪt/
A1 used as the subject of a verb , or the object of a verb or preposition , to refer to a thing, animal , situation , or idea that has already been mentioned : "Where's my pen ? It was on my desk a minute ago." "You left it by the phone ." The company was losing money and it had to make people redundant . The argument was upsetting for us all - I don't want to talk about it. Children who stay away from school do it for different reasons .Personal pronouns Grammar:Dummy subjectsEnglish clauses which are not imperatives must have a subject. Sometimes we need to use a ‘dummy’ or ‘empty’ or ‘artificial’ subject when there is no subject attached to the verb, and where the real subject is somewhere else in the clause. It and there are the two dummy subjects used in English:Grammar:It as a dummy subjectWe often use it as a dummy subject with adjectives and their complements:Grammar:There as a dummy subjectThere operates as a dummy subject in the construction there is or there are. There is/are indicates that something or someone exists or is in a particular place or situation:Grammar:ItWe commonly use the pronoun it as both a subject and an object pronoun:Grammar:It as an ‘empty’ or ‘dummy’ subject and objectWe can use it as an ‘empty’ subject or as an ‘empty’ object. It is ‘empty’ because it doesn’t refer to anything in particular:Grammar:Anticipatory itWe also use it to introduce or ‘anticipate’ the subject or object of a sentence, especially when the subject or object of the sentence is a clause. Most commonly, such clauses are to + infinitive and that clauses. We also call this use of it a ‘dummy’ subject, since the real subject is another part of the sentence (real subject underlined):Grammar:I find it amazing thatWith verbs such as find or consider, it + adjective + that clause or it + adjective + to infinitive, are commonly used to anticipate an object:Grammar:It and cleft sentences (It was my friend who …)We use it in cleft sentences. It emphasises the subject or object of the main clause:Grammar:It with the passive voiceIt is common with the passive voice. It makes the sentence seem less personal and more objective:Grammar:It, this and that in paragraphsWe use it, this and that to introduce further information about a topic already mentioned. However, the words have different uses.Grammar:It’s or its?It’s is the contracted form of it is or it has:Grammar:Pronouns: personal (I, me, you, him, it, they, etc.)We use personal pronouns in place of noun phrases. We often use them to refer back to people and things that we have already identified (underlined):Grammar:Subject and object pronounsPersonal subject pronouns act as the subject of a clause. We use them before a verb to show who is doing the verb. We do not usually leave out the pronoun:Grammar:I, meWe use I and me to refer to the speaker or writer. I is the subject form and me is the object form:Grammar:YouWe use you to refer to the listener or reader. It is both the subject and the object form. You can refer to one person or more than one person. It is usually clear from the context whether you is singular or plural:Grammar:He, him; she, herHe, him, she and her are singular third person pronouns. He and him are the masculine forms. She and her are the feminine forms:Grammar:ItWe use it to refer to things:Grammar:We, usWe use we and us to refer to different groups of people, but always including the speaker. We and us can refer to the speaker + the listener, or the speaker + other people but not the listener, or people in general including the speaker:Grammar:They, themWe use they and them to refer to specific groups of people, things and animals:
(Definition of it pronoun (THING) from the Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary & Thesaurus © Cambridge University Press)
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