DO › used to show the person or thing that does something: She was examined by a doctor. The building had been destroyed by fire. a painting by Van Gogh
HOW › through doing or using something: Can I pay by cheque? I sent it by email. We'll get there by car. [+ doing sth] Open the file by clicking on the icon.
HOLDING › holding a particular part of someone or something: She grabbed me by the arm.
NEAR › near or next to something or someone: I'll meet you by the post office. A small child stood by her side.
NOT LATER › not later than a particular time or date: Applications have to be in by the 31st.
ACCORDING TO › according to: By law you must be eighteen to purchase alcohol.
PAST › past: He sped by me on a motorcycle.
AMOUNT › used to show measurements or amounts: twelve by ten metres of floor space Interest rates have been increased by 0.25%. I'm paid by the hour. Copies have sold by the million.
by accident/chance/mistake, etc › as a result of an accident/chance/mistake, etc: I went to the wrong room by mistake.
by day/night › during the day/night
day by day/little by little/one by one, etc › used in particular phrases to mean 'gradually' or 'in units of': Day by day he grew stronger.