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Meaning of “by” - Learner’s Dictionary

by

preposition     strong /baɪ/ weak /, /
DO
A2 used to show the person or thing that does something: She was examined by a doctor. The building had been destroyed by fire. a painting by Van GoghCausing things to happen
HOW
A2 through doing or using something: Can I pay by cheque? I sent it by email. We'll get there by car. [+ doing sth] Open the file by clicking on the icon.Causing things to happen
HOLDING
B2 holding a particular part of someone or something: She grabbed me by the arm.Having in your hands
NEAR
B1 near or next to something or someone: I'll meet you by the post office. A small child stood by her side.Next to and beside
NOT LATER
A2 not later than a particular time or date: Applications have to be in by the 31st.Before, after and alreadyAfter and behind
ACCORDING TO
according to: By law you must be eighteen to purchase alcohol.Being based on or depending on somethingQuoting and making references
PAST
past: He sped by me on a motorcycle.General words for movement
AMOUNT
used to show measurements or amounts: twelve by ten metres of floor space Interest rates have been increased by 0.25%. I'm paid by the hour. Copies have sold by the million.Weighing and measuring
by accident/chance/mistake, etc
B1 as a result of an accident/chance/mistake, etc: I went to the wrong room by mistake.Not expected or planned
by day/night
during the day/nightRelating to regular periods of time
day by day/little by little/one by one, etc
used in particular phrases to mean 'gradually' or 'in units of': Day by day he grew stronger.Slow and moving slowly
(Definition of by preposition from the Cambridge Learner’s Dictionary © Cambridge University Press)
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Avoiding common errors with the word enough.
Avoiding common errors with the word enough.
by ,
May 25, 2016
by Liz Walter Enough is a very common word, but it is easy to make mistakes with it. You need to be careful about its position in a sentence, and the prepositions or verb patterns that come after it. I’ll start with the position of enough in the sentence. When we use it with a noun,

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