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Turkish translation of “by”

by

preposition     strong /baɪ/ weak /, /
DO A2 used to show the person or thing that does something
tarafından
She was examined by a doctor. a painting by Van GoghCausing things to happen
HOW A2 through doing or using something
ile, yoluyla, vasıtasıyla
Can I pay by cheque? We'll get there by car. [+ doing sth] Open the file by clicking on the icon.Causing things to happen
HOLDING B2 holding a particular part of someone or something
... dan tutarak, dokunarak; ...erek, arak
She grabbed me by the arm.Having in your hands
NEAR B1 near or next to something or someone
yanında, yanıbaşında
I'll meet you by the post office. A small child stood by her side.Next to and beside
NOT LATER A2 not later than a particular time or date
... e kadar, ... saatine/tarihine kadar
Applications have to be in by the 31st.Before, after and alreadyAfter and behind
ACCORDING TO according to
... a/a göre, uyarınca
By law you must be eighteen to purchase alcohol.Being based on or depending on somethingQuoting and making references
PAST past
yanından, yakınından geçerek
He sped by me on a motorcycle.General words for movement
AMOUNT used to show measurements or amounts
ölçüleri ve miktarları belirtirken, ... lık, ... e ...
twelve by ten metres of floor space Interest rates have been increased by 0.25%. I'm paid by the hour.Weighing and measuring
by accident/chance/mistake, etc B1 as a result of an accident/chance/mistake, etc
kazara, şans eseri, yanlışlıkla, hatayla
I went to the wrong room by mistake.Not expected or planned
by day/night during the day/night
gece/gündüz
Relating to regular periods of time
day by day/little by little/one by one, etc used in particular phrases to mean 'gradually' or 'in units of'
günbegün, azar azar, birer birer
Day by day he grew stronger.Slow and moving slowly
(Definition of by preposition from the Cambridge Learner's Dictionary English-Turkish © Cambridge University Press)

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